desert fantasy world

Dune and Battlefield Earth—Science Fantasy & Sci-Fi Worldbuilding

Guest blogger Eva Mahoney (Part 1 of 3)

With the film remake of Frank Herbert’s classic science fantasy novel Dune coming to theatres (hopefully) in December of this year, there has been an upsurge of interest in science fiction and fantasy as a whole. Especially, the classic works that brought sci-fi out of the realm of fantasy worlds and imagination and into the modern-day universe of scientific and technical plausibility.

For fun, I thought you’d enjoy the trailer with its amazing all-star cast:

In this three part series, I look into Frank Herbert’s Dune and L. Ron Hubbard’s Battlefield Earth and how these science fiction authors crafted the major components of most sci-fi epics: worldbuilding, future technology, and heroes—especially heroes. For a great saga is more than its bells and whistles, or rather black holes and quantum theory. The heart of every great story is human. Dune and Battlefield Earth are no exception.

The key elements of an epic sci-fi saga are often a hero of larger than life proportions, advanced technologies not yet available to mankind, and an alien (to the reader) environment. These features are especially compelling where the boundaries of travel and conquest are extended out to near-infinite distances. Whereas we earthbound citizens may wonder whether there is more to Heaven and Earth than can be currently seen, these speculations are fact to Paul Atreides and Jonnie Goodboy Tyler respectively, in their struggles for survival against formidable galactic enemies.

If you are not yet familiar with Battlefield Earth, you can read the first 13 chapters for free or listen to the first hour of the unabridged audio production (a personal favorite).

Worldbuilding (Part 1)

For a hero to tell his story and give us insights into his particular struggle to prevail, the author frequently builds an environment or even a complete universe—complete with maps, landscapes, and a backstory.

In science fiction and fantasy, this is “worldbuilding.”

This new environment is usually fraught with dangers and hardships to challenge the hero in his quest. Even the complacencies can be hazardous as if to suggest that we humans love nothing better than a good life-or-death struggle in any form.

In the case of Dune, Frank Herbert has created a universe which exists tens of thousands of years into the future, where human beings have “evolved” along political, social, and religious lines that had become blurred and intermingled at some point.

In the wake of a now distant revolution (the Butlerian Jihad), “computers, thinking machines, and conscious robots” have been banned. Dune characters include gifted humans that have been trained along various disciplines to take the place of computers. Some, called Mentats, are trained to think and calculate like a computer. Others have superior navigational powers and can cross vast distances by bending space and time. Still others, the sisters of the Bene Gesserit, are trained along socio-political/religious lines to control, forecast, and mold the future, as advisors to dukes and kings. It is the gifted aspect of the humans that set this early classic science fantasy apart—Mr. Herbert did not limit it to futuristic science alone, and yet there is futuristic sci-fi technology (which I explore in part 2, stay tuned!).

All these human “computers” have one critical thing in common in the Dune universe, and that is the spice also known as “mélange.”

Spice is a substance that can greatly enhance the natural or trained abilities of the user and prolong life. It is also highly addictive in quantities over a moderate amount. And most importantly, the spice is only found on one planet in the known universe: the harsh desert planet called Arrakis, also known as Dune. So, the ruling families of the Landsraad, the sisters of the Bene Gesserit, the Spacing Guild Navigators, and the Royal Imperium all vie for control of Dune and the vast power and wealth it represents.

fantasy world sand duneAuthor Frank Herbert put much care into creating the desert planet that is the focus of the novel. The casual reader will get some inkling of a larger story that is going on behind the primary plot of the conflict between the ruling families and councils.

The Fremen are quietly collecting water in hidden places to transform the planet from a harsh wasteland into a paradise, a process that will take hundreds of years, but one that could be poisonous to the giant sandworms that create the spice.

Mr. Herbert wrote the fictional backstory to the “terraforming” of Dune in an appendix at the end of the novel. He had a keen interest in the subject of ecology. His son, Brian Herbert, later wrote that the spice was an analogy to the finite resource of oil on Earth in the 20th century and the threat to the ecology of our planet by over-mining it. 50 years after the publication of Dune, major global powers are still fighting over it.

In Dune, the powers that be are so intent on competing with each other, forming alliances and sabotaging their enemies, that they overlook the most compelling enemy of all, the Fremen.

The Fremen, are the native inhabitants of Dune, having migrated there at some time in the past. They have adapted to live in the harsh environment where water is so precious that wasting even a small amount can be punishable by death in a Fremen tribe. And the dead are reduced to their water, to give back to the tribe. Unlike the ruling classes, they understand the spice and how it is formed, and its relationship to the gigantic sandworms that roam the deserts of Dune.

They have their larger purpose for the future in the dream given to them by Pardot Kynes, the ecologist. They ride the great Dune worms as a rite of passage and live mainly free in the remote desert, smart, able, and determined. They are the force to be reckoned with in the universe of Dune. And Paul Atreides is their savior.

Here is one of the Dune quotes from Paul that gives you a sense of his approach to leadership:

“A process cannot be understood by stopping it. Understanding must move with the flow of the process, must join it and flow with it.”

—Paul Atreides (Frank Herbert Dune)

Mr. Herbert’s future world, while advanced in terms of technology, is yet filled with the barbarisms that have plagued mankind from time immemorial. It is a world full of vice and assassins, tightly controlled by “polite” codes of conduct and political intrigue. It is a world where there is a great chasm between the rich and powerful and the poor and seemingly powerless. It is a universe which, having freed itself from one form of repression, is yet still laboring under the repression of dictatorial, brutal rulers, as if to say that man has yet to learn…

But it is also a world where hope lives in the most unlikely places. In L. Ron Hubbard’s Battlefield Earth, we see worldbuilding, or rather unbuilding, of a different sort. It takes place on Earth a thousand years after an alien invasion has wiped out nearly all of humanity using deadly gas drones.

In our naivety, humans sent a capsule into space carrying a solid gold disk with a map showing the location of the planet. So the Psychlos, an alien race specializing in mining, have invaded the planet to mine for gold and other natural resources, with the extermination of mankind as collateral damage.

After a thousand years, nearly all traces of the civilization that once existed have deteriorated and fallen to dust or been covered over by dirt and vegetation—a devastatingly post-apocalyptic wasteland.

After the initial attack, the Psychlos keep surveillance drones circling the planet year after year, century after century to keep track of the few remaining groups of humans, while they are busy operating mining facilities in several places on earth. So the men that remain stay hidden in jungles, highlands, and remote mountains, struggling to survive in a world come undone.

In the village where Jonnie Goodboy Tyler lives, there is a source of radioactivity nearby, which is poisoning the water and sickening many in the village. Having long lost the true knowledge of their ancestors, the villagers have sunk into apathy and hopelessness, haunted by superstition (a real dystopian society).

Jonnie Goodboy Tyler, through fortune, intelligence, and spirit, is different. He observes his environment and makes conclusions about his ancestors—that they did not die tamely.

He also concludes that there is something wrong with the area where his village is located. Many of the villagers are sick and dying, yet the animals living on the plains grow fat and healthy. This leads Jonnie Goodboy Tyler to find a better location for his village, despite the surveillance drones—an adventure that changes the course of his future and that of Earth. And it also throws him straight into the clutches of the scheming, evil head of security for Earth, Terl.

Terl is a Psychlo with dreams of grandeur. He has found what looks like a deep vein of gold on the side of a cliff in the Rocky Mountains. It’s full of radiation from decaying nuclear landmines, which is deadly to Psychlos. But Terl has a plan to capture humans and train them to mine the vein.

Battlefield Earth Chinco learning machine As fate would have it, his first “trainee” is Jonnie Goodboy Tyler. Terl uses a speed learning machine while keeping him captive in a cage and feeding him raw rat. In his arrogance, he assumes that Jonnie and men in general are too stupid to be dangerous. That, of course, is a big mistake.

Jonnie is keenly observant of not only his captors but also the world around him. We see through his eyes the ruins of Denver, where he discovers broken shards of glass from old windows and books with strange marks in them (Jonnie has never seen a book before). We see the outlines of a deserted highway where no car has driven for a thousand years. We also see what has happened to humanity through his eyes. Some have given up hope like the villagers in Jonnie’s village. Some have thrown in their lot with their captors and become sadistic mercenaries like the Brigantes that hunt other humans in the jungles of Africa. And then there are the Scots, who are inspired that they can prevail with teamwork, sacrifice, and a little luck. Thus the core of the rebellion is born.

Here is one of my favorite quotes, when Jonnie first meets the Scots:

“I am a messenger from Mankind—before we become extinct forever.”

—Jonnie Goodboy Tyler (L. Ron Hubbard, Battlefield Earth)

Like Dune, Battlefield Earth is a world of polar-opposites. The conquering Psychlos are harsh and brutal. They kill and torture humans and animals for sport. They disparage the strangeness of Earth’s environment compared to their own. But most importantly, the Psychlos discount the abilities of men like Jonnie Goodboy Tyler and Robert the Fox, men conditioned by hardship and desperation and determination.

Brought together by seemingly insurmountable odds, willing to die for a chance to be free of their oppressive masters, the last surviving men of Earth are led by Jonnie Goodboy Tyler in an all-out fight to rid Earth of the Psychlos.

If you have not yet read it, read the first 13 chapters or listen to the first hour for free (it is my favorite sci-fi audiobook production).

Though beautiful and wild, the devastated, radiation leaking Earth of the future is every bit as harsh as the desert planet Dune.

Frank Herbert and L. Ron Hubbard have created worlds which, though strikingly different, have key similarities.

They are both worlds laboring under repressive masters who are unthinkingly and uncaringly plundering the precious natural resources of the planet. While the vast majority of the subjugated peoples are seemingly resigned to their fate, all it takes is a few brave individuals willing to follow a strong leader with a good purpose, to restore their hope and resolve.

Kevin J. Anderson, co-author of Dune series, on Battlefield Earth:

In the next part, we will look at future technology and how the heroes and villains of Dune and Battlefield Earth transverse the worlds that their authors have created.

Stay tuned.

Eva MahoneyEva Mahoney is a writer, musician, and all-around renaissance woman with a passion for sci-fi, fantasy, historical fiction, and epic thrillers—in short, great storytelling. She is currently operating out of a converted garage loft on the family farm in upstate New York while taking care of her parents and a small menagerie of pets and wild animals.  In her “spare time,” she telecommutes for a large NYC law firm on the weekends, writes songs, and blogs for several causes.  She dreams of a place for all people of goodwill to unite in helping to a create better world and is developing a digital platform to “make it so.”  And, most importantly, she is a grandmother!

25 replies
  1. Nick Scarface
    Nick Scarface says:

    I don’t understand why the heart of every great saga is human? I think it’s can be also interesting a story with protagonist an alien or anyway a non-human character.

  2. Jean Dale Glass
    Jean Dale Glass says:

    Yes! BE is a great human story.
    Frank Herbert’s Dune and L. Ron Hubbard’s Battlefield Earth are composed of the most sci-fi epic scenarios: worldbuilding, future technology, and heroes—especially heroes.
    Heroes are inspiring.
    Thank you.

  3. Jean Dale Glass
    Jean Dale Glass says:

    Eva is so right. Battlefield Earth is also my favorite sci-fi audiobook production!
    L. Ron Hubbard’s descriptions of the “beautiful and wild, the devastated, radiation leaking Earth of the future is every bit as harsh as the desert planet Dune.”
    It is a joy to go to these other worlds, through literacy!

  4. Kim
    Kim says:

    I have read Battlefield Earth 7 times and listened to the audio book twice. Each time it gets better. One of my very favorite books of all time of any genre.

  5. Lissa Hilsee
    Lissa Hilsee says:

    I just finished listening to the audio of Battlefield Earth, and it was amazing. I’ve never been a Sci Fi person, so this was new for me, and i am amazed at how much i loved and enjoyed it. Despite the trials and tribulations faced during this sage, i somehow always found it uplifting and full of hope for good men and women to prevail over everything! Especially right now, so so relevant. It gave me a broader perspective on our current situation that helps me to see the big picture in a way that helps me on a daily basis.

  6. Ed McCloskey
    Ed McCloskey says:

    Very interesting article! While I loved Dune, I was a little turned off by the need for spice. On the other hand, Battlefield Earth is closer to home since it involves the planet we inhabit. The main plot component is the education machine used by the hero to learn how to defeat the Psychlos. By accepting the education machine, everything else in the narrative falls into place. The advanced science used by the Psychlos and the eventual description of what makes them so evil is also easily accepted. Of the two stories, Battlefield Earth is definitely my favorite!

  7. Griselda
    Griselda says:

    The great thing about Science Fiction is that it sometimes becomes Science Fact. Obviously, I wouldn’t want that in the case of Battlefield Earth, but it does pose the question: how are we taking care of ourselves and our planet? The choices we make can lead to some disastrous consequences. Although science fiction can “exaggerate” them, they are nonetheless worthy of thought. Both of these books are classics for a reason. Must-reads!

  8. Bob D
    Bob D says:

    Nice article, Eva. I am a physicist, and have been a Sci-Fi fan forever. For all the usual reasons, the technology dreams, the romance, the hope for the future. But there are two books that I re-read every few years. They are “Battlefield Earth” by L. Ron Hubbard, and “Atlas Shrugged” by Ayn Rand. Both are 1000 page can’t-put-’em-down epic stories, but the reason that I re-read them is the political message of both, which has been valid since time immemorial. Good people must look at their societies, and then act to fix them, or the villains will destroy everything…

  9. Peter Breyer
    Peter Breyer says:

    Battlefield Earth and Dune are equally exciting novels not only for the world-building but also for depicting the battle of a superior force against the cunning of the Fremen in Dune and in the case of Battlefield Earth the sheer will to survive by the last remnants of humanity. I read both nevels when I was young and consider them both stellar works of science fiction.

  10. Bruno Bergeron
    Bruno Bergeron says:

    Absolutely riveting! Hubbard is gripping you in his story and doesn’t let go. Every time I turn a page I feel excitement. It’s a masterpiece of story telling. A must read for every Sci-Fi fan.

  11. Tony Lonstein
    Tony Lonstein says:

    Great read! Jonnie Goodboy Tyler is one of the best characters that shows us legendary goodness and leadership!!

  12. John Richardson
    John Richardson says:

    One of the great aspects of science fiction is that it allows the reader to explore a variety of different and possible human conditions while at the same time questioning what it truly means to be human. Both Dune and Battlefield Earth approach this question from different situations and answer it in attention grabbing, exciting fashions. This is part of the thrill of science fiction and why I enjoy it so much.

  13. Trissie Badger
    Trissie Badger says:

    I loved the blog here and am a science fiction buff like many others. I actually named one of my daughters after “Jessica” in Dune; I look forward to this new movie. I am now remembering the late -nights and -into- the- wee morning hours of reading Battlefield Earth. I could not put the book down and spent a number of days at work much more tired than I should have been, all because I simply could not put that darn book down!

  14. MaryKay Carr
    MaryKay Carr says:

    I have read Battlefield Earth three times. Each time I read it I learn more and enjoy it every bit as much as I did the first time through. There are great lessons in Battlefield Earth and I feel that the plot aligns with what we are experiencing right now in 2020 and 2021 on Earth. There is abundant hope if we stay away from fear and take action.

  15. Maria Neumann
    Maria Neumann says:

    I love both books, and can’t wait for the movie. But my favorite villain in any story, not just sci-fi is the in Battlefield Earth. The complexities of the relationships in BE bring the sci-if to life for me.

  16. teresa Nebeker
    teresa Nebeker says:

    wow… this is incredible stuff. I feel in reading Battlefield Earth (again) that society is creeping in on making fact out of fiction. I hope the world gets the message before it is too late.

  17. Kevin
    Kevin says:

    Battlefield Earth is my favorite all-time fiction book. It’s the only book that kept me up in the wee hours of the morning despite having to get up early for work. Such a page turner! Best book of the century for me! It did remind me of “Raiders of the Lost Ark” for its action packed adventure but even better as a book.

  18. Tim Cummings
    Tim Cummings says:

    I’m a big audiobook fan and Battlefield Earth was the best audiobook production I’ve ever experienced. A great store combined with spellbinding voices, sound effects and music are what make this audiobook so amazing. I’m also a big Dune fan. I’ve had the William Hurt version on DVD for years and watched it more than a dozen times. Dune never grows old. I’m looking forward to seeing the remake of Dune. I love Rebecca Ferguson and can’t wait to see her as Lady Jessica Atreides.

  19. Michael Becker
    Michael Becker says:

    Battlefield Earth is one of the best books written. Three books in one, and each aspect of the book fascinating in it’s own right. The rational of the technology described is real to where it seems logically workable. The personalities of both the aliens and earth beings is such that one understands that a mind is structured in a similar pattern no matter what race of being it is. Truly an incredible read of which I have re-read many times with a new viewpoint each go-around. Good reading!


Leave a Reply

Want to join the discussion?
Feel free to contribute!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *